Dermacentor andersoniRocky Mountain wood tick

Ge­o­graphic Range

Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks are mostly found in arid areas of the Rocky Moun­tain re­gion (Ne­braska, South Dakota, Ari­zona, New Mex­ico, etc.) in­clud­ing Cal­i­for­nia, where it is only found east of the Sierra Nevada moun­tains. They can also be found in var­i­ous parts of south­west­ern Canada, in­clud­ing British Co­lum­bia, Al­berta, and Saskatchewan. ("The Gen­era Der­ma­cen­tor and Oto­cen­tor (Ixo­di­dae) in the United States, with Stud­ies in Vari­a­tion", 1938; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Ge­o­graphic dis­tri­b­u­tion of arthro­pod-borne dis­eases and their prin­ci­pal vec­tors", 1989; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

Habi­tat

Adult Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks are gen­er­ally found in el­e­va­tions of 2100 m to 2500 m. Tem­per­a­ture may be im­por­tant in de­ter­min­ing its ge­o­graphic range as these ticks show a pref­er­ence for lower el­e­va­tions (1600 m to 2200 m) at higher tem­per­a­tures and higher el­e­va­tions (2350 m to 2500 m) at lower tem­per­a­tures. This species also prefers brushy areas of foothills and moun­tains as these areas host small mam­mals and other host or­gan­isms. (Eisen, 2007)

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Phys­i­cal De­scrip­tion

Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks are gen­er­ally brown or red­dish brown in color. Fe­males have a dis­tinct dor­sal sil­ver-gray or­na­men­ta­tion (known as the 'shield') which turns more gray when the tick feeds, while males are spot­ted gray and white with no dis­tinc­tive shield mark­ing. Both sexes are mot­tled in this fash­ion over por­tions of their legs and mouth­parts (basis ca­pit­u­lum). Their bod­ies are flat and pear-shaped, rang­ing any­where from 2 to 5.3 mm in length, though fully en­gorged fe­males may reach up to 16.5 mm. This species is sex­u­ally di­mor­phic; in ad­di­tion to the mark­ing dif­fer­ences men­tioned above, fe­males range from 2.8-5.4 mm long (13.8 to 16.5 mm when fully en­gorged) while males range from 2.1 to 6.1 mm. Body mass ranges from .005 to .7 g. This species is also poly­mor­phic, with a lot of phys­i­cal vari­a­tion be­tween in­di­vid­u­als. Fea­tures that dis­tin­guish this species from other ticks in­clude the num­ber and size of gob­lets (used in aer­a­tion/res­pi­ra­tion) on its spirac­u­lar plates, with this species hav­ing 100-200 gob­lets on av­er­age. Fe­males pro­duce a neu­ro­toxin in their oral se­cre­tions that pre­vents the re­lease of acetyl­choline, a neu­ro­trans­mit­ter nec­es­sary for mus­cle con­trac­tions, often caus­ing paral­y­sis even in larger mam­mals such as dogs and hu­mans. (Fur­man and Loomis, 1984; Lysyk, 2010; Richard and Far­row, 1991; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • female larger
  • sexes colored or patterned differently
  • female more colorful
  • Range mass
    .005 to .7 g
    0.00 to 0.02 oz
  • Range length
    2.1 to 16.5 mm
    0.08 to 0.65 in

De­vel­op­ment

The life cycle of Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks is char­ac­ter­ized by three stages: lar­val, nymph, and adult. Pro­gres­sion through these stages can take 1-3 years. In­di­vid­u­als usu­ally take a sin­gle blood meal from a mam­malian host be­fore pro­gress­ing to the next stage and the size of hosts in­creases along with the size of ticks. Host avail­abil­ity may cause vari­a­tion in tim­ing and du­ra­tion of mat­ing, oviposit­ing, egg hatch­ing, molt­ing, and over­all growth. The life cycle be­gins when eggs are de­posited on veg­e­ta­tion by en­gorged fe­males dur­ing early sum­mer. Lar­vae re­main in­ac­tive until out­side stim­u­la­tion (i.e. tem­per­a­ture, light, hu­mid­ity) cause them to seek their first mam­malian host (usu­ally some sort of ro­dent). Fol­low­ing a feed­ing pe­riod rang­ing from 2 to 6 days, lar­vae drop off and form nymphs via a molt­ing process. Nymphs dis­play be­hav­ior sim­i­lar to lar­vae, re­main­ing dor­mant until stim­u­lated by the pres­ence of a po­ten­tial host. Fol­low­ing at­tach­ment to the sec­ond host, males and fe­males demon­strate dif­fer­ent be­hav­iors. In prepa­ra­tion for mat­ing, fe­males feed on the host for long pe­ri­ods (5 to 15 days) while males feed for shorter pe­ri­ods and spend more time cop­u­lat­ing with par­tially fed fe­males. After fe­males are fully en­gorged, they drop off their hosts and seek a place to de­posit their eggs. Males and fe­males die shortly after com­plet­ing re­pro­duc­tion. ("Rocky Moun­tain Wood Ticks", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

Re­pro­duc­tion

This species has a polyg­y­nous mat­ing sys­tem, where males dis­rupt their adult stage feed­ing pe­riod to begin cop­u­la­tion with par­tially fed fe­males. Mat­ing oc­curs in the third and final life stage. Fe­males re­lease 2,6-dichlorophe­nol dur­ing feed­ing, al­low­ing males to iden­tify them as po­ten­tial mates. Once fe­males have con­sumed enough blood, they re­lease cho­les­teryl oleate, sig­nal­ing that they are ready to mate. These two chem­i­cals are com­mon to hard ticks (Fam­ily Ixo­di­dae). (3D CR Original Assemble CREALITY Accessories Full Printers Replacement 10S Parts wCqUE4; S2144 Madison found MLC Triangle Arrowhead War Artifact Hammond Ohio Point by daUqZw; So­nen­shine, et al., 1988; Point Etching First in Signed 20th Frame Teal Century Moorish The Dry Early qUnHg6wt6; So­nen­shine, et al., 1986)

These ticks are re­pro­duc­tively ac­tive from May through June, with some vari­a­tion pos­si­ble due to host avail­abil­ity, tem­per­a­ture, hu­mid­ity, and other en­vi­ron­men­tal fac­tors. This species is known to have a sin­gle breed­ing sea­son in late spring with adults dying soon after cop­u­la­tion. When grown in ideal con­di­tions in a lab, mat­u­ra­tion and re­pro­duc­tion have come to com­ple­tion in ap­prox­i­mately 68 days; in the wild, it takes both males and fe­males ap­prox­i­mately a year to reach sex­ual ma­tu­rity. Fe­males may lay any­where be­tween 2500 and 7400 eggs, de­pend­ing on their nu­tri­tion lev­els, over the course of 10 to 33 days. ("Scor­pi­ons Spi­ders Mites and Ticks: Arach­nida - Rocky Moun­tain Wood Tick (Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni): Species Ac­count", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

  • Breeding interval
    Rocky Mountain wood ticks breed once yearly between the months of May and June.
  • Breeding season
    This species breeds from late spring through early summer.
  • Range number of offspring
    2500 to 7400
  • Average number of offspring
    4000
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    1 to 3 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    1 years
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  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    1 to 3 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    1 years

Nei­ther males nor fe­males in­vest in their young be­yond fe­males' in­vest­ments in their eggs. ("Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

Lifes­pan/Longevity

The pri­mary de­ter­mi­nant of lifes­pan for Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks is the avail­abil­ity of the blood meal re­quired to reach each life stage. Lar­vae can sur­vive up to a month with­out a blood meal; how­ever, with a sin­gle meal they are able to molt into nymphs, which can then sur­vive up­wards of a year be­fore need­ing an­other blood meal. With yet an­other sin­gle feed­ing, nymphs are able to morph into adults, which can sur­vive up to 2 years with­out feed­ing. Mem­bers of this species will typ­i­cally live 1-3 years total in the wild. The longest recorded lifes­pan in cap­tiv­ity for this species is 4 years. Vari­a­tion in life span may be in­flu­enced by ex­ter­nal fac­tors such as hu­mid­ity, tem­per­a­ture, and host avail­abil­ity, which may cause these ticks to be dor­mant for longer pe­ri­ods of time be­tween life stages. ("Life Span", 2012; "Scor­pi­ons Spi­ders Mites and Ticks: Arach­nida - Rocky Moun­tain Wood Tick (Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni): Species Ac­count", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

  • Range lifespan
    Status: wild
    1 to 4 years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: wild
    3 years
  • Range lifespan
    Status: captivity
    3 to 4 years
  • Typical lifespan
    Status: wild
    1 to 4 years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: wild
    2 years
  • Typical lifespan
    Status: captivity
    2 to 4 years

Be­hav­ior

Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks are par­a­sitic ticks with a 3-stage life cycle, each of which is as­so­ci­ated with a dif­fer­ent host. They are mostly ses­sile for the first two life stages, only mov­ing when seek­ing a host. Adults are highly mo­bile as they scram­ble to find mates, which they en­counter on what is known as the de­fin­i­tive host. Once at­tached to a host, the ticks re­main there, drop­ping off only once they have con­sumed a suf­fi­cient amount of blood to tran­si­tion into the next life stage or com­plete breed­ing. To en­gage in feed­ing, these an­i­mals must first be stim­u­lated by changes in the ex­ter­nal en­vi­ron­ment, sensed via a front-leg struc­ture known as Haller's organ, which senses changes in stim­uli such as hu­mid­ity, tem­per­a­ture and car­bon diox­ide lev­els (pro­duced by po­ten­tial hosts). Once they sense a prospec­tive host, these ticks at­tach using cush­ioned pads on their feet known as pul­villi, which se­crete an ad­he­sive sub­stance. Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks use their pal­pus to feed, which they in­ject into an ex­posed area of their hosts' der­mis, pro­ceed­ing to draw blood. This species does not have so­cial hi­er­ar­chies and does not dis­play any com­plex­ity in its so­cial sys­tem. ("Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009)

Home Range

In the adult stage, home range is typ­i­cally lim­ited to the host. ("Rocky Moun­tain Spot­ted Fever (RMSF)", 2011; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Ge­o­graphic dis­tri­b­u­tion of arthro­pod-borne dis­eases and their prin­ci­pal vec­tors", 1989)

Com­mu­ni­ca­tion and Per­cep­tion

The pri­mary sense organ, Haller's organ, is com­mon to both hard and soft-bod­ied ticks. There are slight dif­fer­ences in the organ from species to species, but it is gen­er­ally lo­cated on the dor­sal sur­face of the tarsi (leg seg­ments clos­est to head of the tick). Haller's organ plays a key role in find­ing hosts as setae on the organ re­spond to changes in hu­mid­ity, car­bon diox­ide lev­els, and ol­fac­tory stim­uli. This organ is also im­por­tant in pheromone de­tec­tion dur­ing mat­ing sea­son. In ad­di­tion to Haller's organ, these ticks also have many setae on their scu­tum and legs. Longer, curved setae on the ven­tral sur­face aid in chemosen­sory and tac­tile re­sponses while shorter, straighter setae act as tem­per­a­ture re­cep­tors. Rocky moun­tain wood ticks have a pair of sim­ple eyes that are more or less par­al­lel to the sec­ond pair of legs, just past the head. (So­nen­shine, et al., 1986; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009; Wool­ley, 1972)

Food Habits

Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks are san­gui­v­ores (most typ­i­cally of mam­mals) who take a sin­gle blood meal from their hosts at each of their three life stages. ("The Gen­era Der­ma­cen­tor and Oto­cen­tor (Ixo­di­dae) in the United States, with Stud­ies in Vari­a­tion", 1938; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2012; "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni", 2009; Wool­ley, 1972; "Ge­o­graphic dis­tri­b­u­tion of arthro­pod-borne dis­eases and their prin­ci­pal vec­tors", 1989)

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  • blood

Pre­da­tion

The main de­fen­sive mech­a­nism of this species against typ­i­cal tick preda­tors such as ants, bee­tles and spi­ders is the se­cre­tion of al­lomones, a spe­cial set of sub­stances which in­flu­ence preda­tor be­hav­ior in favor of the tick (i.e. dis­cour­ag­ing pur­suit if fol­low­ing scent). The main com­po­nent (nearly 25% of mass) of these al­lomones is squa­lene, a bio­chem­i­cal pre­cur­sor to steroids. These al­lomones are se­creted by large wax glands on the un­der­side of the tick's legs. Once de­pleted, these wax reser­voirs take up to 10 days to re­plen­ish, a pe­riod dur­ing which the tick has lit­tle de­fense against pre­da­tion. (8 Deep drive Tools 3 6 14 point 6MM BD19M6 Set Matco Metric pc 19MM Socket n1dvq1HPx; S2144 Madison found MLC Triangle Arrowhead War Artifact Hammond Ohio Point by daUqZw; Yoder, et al., 1993)

  • Known Predators
    • Ants
    • Beetles
    • Spiders

Ecosys­tem Roles

As an ob­lig­ate par­a­site, Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks rely on mam­malian blood to pro­vide the nu­tri­tion nec­es­sary to tran­si­tion through their var­i­ous life stages. Dur­ing their lifes­pan, these ticks also play an im­por­tant role as host to var­i­ous types of bac­te­ria, two of which are Ar­senophonus and Wol­bachia. Of the two, Wol­bachia has a spe­cial re­la­tion­ship with many other arthro­pods and is noted for its abil­ity to alter the re­pro­duc­tive abil­i­ties of its hosts by in­fect­ing the testes and ovaries. Such in­fec­tions may re­sult in "male killing" where males are killed dur­ing lar­val de­vel­op­ment, "fem­i­niza­tion" where in­fected males de­velop as fe­males or (in­fer­tile) pseudo-fe­males, or some­times lead­ing to the de­vel­op­ment of partheno­gen­e­sis, where fe­males re­pro­duce with­out com­ing into con­tact with a male. The most im­por­tant ef­fect of host­ing Wol­bachia, how­ever, is "cy­to­plas­mic in­com­pat­i­bil­ity", where Wol­bachia-in­fected males are un­able to re­pro­duce with un­in­fected fe­males. This has been sus­pected as a po­ten­tial cause of spe­ci­a­tion. Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks are also known hosts of Rick­ettsia bac­te­ria, specif­i­cally R. prowazeki and R. rick­ettsii; in­fec­tion with these bac­te­ria is most often deadly for Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks and can be passed to host species as well. Rick­ettsia rick­ettsii, for ex­am­ple, is known as a cause of Rocky Moun­tain Spot­ted fever, the most com­mon fatal tick-borne dis­ease in hu­mans found in the United States. (Burgdor­fer, et al., 1973; Der­gousoff and Chilton, 2010; Niebyiski, et al., 1999; Samish and Re­hacek, 1999)

Species Used as Host
  • Class Mam­malia
Mu­tu­al­ist Species
  • Ar­senophonus
  • Wol­bachia
  • Rick­ettsia prowazeki
  • Rick­ettsia rick­ettsii

Eco­nomic Im­por­tance for Hu­mans: Pos­i­tive

Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks pro­vide no known eco­nomic ben­e­fit to hu­mans.

Eco­nomic Im­por­tance for Hu­mans: Neg­a­tive

One of the im­por­tant ecosys­tem roles car­ried out by Rocky Moun­tain wood ticks is that they serve as a vec­tor for the tick-borne dis­ease known as Rocky Moun­tain Spot­ted Fever (RMSF). Upon bit­ing a host, the tick passes on the dis­ease-caus­ing gram-neg­a­tive coc­cobacil­lus, Rick­ettsia rick­ettsii, which is an ob­lig­ate in­tra­cel­lu­lar par­a­site and is the true dis­ease-caus­ing agent. Symp­toms char­ac­ter­is­tic of this dis­ease in­clude a rash be­gin­ning in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, fever, nau­sea, eme­sis, se­vere headache, mus­cle pain, and loss of ap­petite. Al­though lethal in some cases, the dis­ease is treat­able. Tak­ing an­tibi­otics upon in­fec­tion, for ex­am­ple, greatly re­duces the mor­tal­ity rate from an alarm­ing 20% chance to a rel­a­tively low 5%. Al­though not known from this par­tic­u­lar species, species in the genus Der­ma­cen­tor are also known to serve as a vec­tor to Tu­laremia, also known as Pah­vant Val­ley plague or rab­bit fever. As with RMSF, this dis­ease is caused by a bac­te­r­ial en­dosym­biont (Fran­cisella tu­laren­sis), which is also a non-motile gram-neg­a­tive coc­cobacil­lus. What makes this dif­fer­ent from RMSF, how­ever, is that it does not rely on di­rect con­tact in order to be spread. It can be wa­ter­borne, in­haled, or in­gested (i.e. poorly-cooked meat). ("Rocky Moun­tain Spot­ted Fever (RMSF)", 2011; Burgdor­fer, et al., 1973; Cunha, 2011; Der­gousoff and Chilton, 2010; Kim, et al., 2010; Kwaik, et al., 2007; "Ge­o­graphic dis­tri­b­u­tion of arthro­pod-borne dis­eases and their prin­ci­pal vec­tors", 1989; Tablet Stift Handy Touch Display Elegant Bedien 100x Pen Universal Lila qEx17Ot)

Con­ser­va­tion Sta­tus

This species has no spe­cial con­ser­va­tion sta­tus. (Fur­man and Loomis, 1984; "Scor­pi­ons Spi­ders Mites and Ticks: Arach­nida - Rocky Moun­tain Wood Tick (Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni): Species Ac­count", 2012; "Ge­o­graphic dis­tri­b­u­tion of arthro­pod-borne dis­eases and their prin­ci­pal vec­tors", 1989)

Con­trib­u­tors

Jean-Claude Michel Mun­yarubuga (au­thor), Uni­ver­sity of Michi­gan-Ann Arbor, Je­remy Wright (ed­i­tor), Uni­ver­sity of Michi­gan-Ann Arbor.

Glossary

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

causes disease in humans

an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).

causes or carries domestic animal disease

either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

diapause

a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.

endothermic

animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.

female parental care

parental care is carried out by females

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

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forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

infrared/heat

(as keyword in perception channel section) This animal has a special ability to detect heat from other organisms in its environment.

internal fertilization

fertilization takes place within the female's body

metamorphosis

A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

mountains

This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.

native range

gold CNC TT323G handlebar tube 18 2017 S Caps Ducati RACING SuperSport the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

parasite

an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death

pheromones

chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species

polygynous

having more than one female as a mate at one time

polymorphic

"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.

sanguivore

an animal that mainly eats blood

scrub forest

scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sedentary

remains in the same area

semelparous

offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.

CNC handlebar 18 SuperSport gold Caps 2017 Ducati TT323G RACING tube S sessile

non-motile; permanently attached at the base.

Attached to substratum and moving little or not at all. Synapomorphy of the Anthozoa

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

solitary

lives alone

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

terrestrial

Living on the ground.

visual

uses sight to communicate

Ref­er­ences

Uni­ver­sity of Al­berta E.H. Strick­land En­to­mo­log­i­cal Mu­seum. 2012. "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni" (On-line). Ac­cessed Feb­ru­ary 03, 2012 at http://​www.​entomology.​ualberta.​ca/​searching_​species_​details.​php?​b=Acari&​c=7&​s=31507.

Uni­ver­sity of Cal­i­for­nia, Davis. 2009. "Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni" (On-line). Ac­cessed Feb­ru­ary 03, 2012 at http://​vetpda.​ucdavis.​edu/​parasitolog/​Parasite.​cfm?​ID=40.

World Health or­ga­ni­za­tion. 1989. "Ge­o­graphic dis­tri­b­u­tion of arthro­pod-borne dis­eases and their prin­ci­pal vec­tors" (On-line). Ac­cessed Feb­ru­ary 24, 2012 at http://​www.​ciesin.​org/​docs/​001-613/​001-613.​html.

En­cy­clo­pe­dia Bri­tan­nica. 2012. "Life Span" (On-line). Ac­cessed March 27, 2012 at http://​www.​britannica.​com/​EBchecked/​topic/​340297/​life-span/​63861/​Perennials.

2011. "Rocky Moun­tain Spot­ted Fever (RMSF)" (On-line). Cen­ter for Dis­ease Con­trol and Pre­ven­tion. Ac­cessed Feb­ru­ary 26, 2012 at http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​rmsf/#​whatis.

City and County of Den­ver. 2012. "Rocky Moun­tain Wood Ticks" (On-line). Den­ver An­i­mal Shel­ter: Dis­ease Con­trol. Ac­cessed Sep­tem­ber 21, 2012 at http://​www.​denvergov.​org/​denveranimalshelter/​DenverAnimalShelter/​HealthVaccinations/​DiseaseControl/​RockyMountainWoodTicks/​tabid/​434845/​Default.​aspx.

Net In­dus­tries. 2012. "Scor­pi­ons Spi­ders Mites and Ticks: Arach­nida - Rocky Moun­tain Wood Tick (Der­ma­cen­tor an­der­soni): Species Ac­count" (On-line). Ac­cessed March 27, 2012 at http://​animals.​jrank.​org/​pages/​2268/​Spiders-Scorpions-Mites-Ticks-Arachnida-ROCKY-MOUNTAIN-WOOD-TICK-Dermacentor-andersoni-SPECIES-ACCOUNTS.​html.

U.S. Trea­sury De­part­ment. The Gen­era Der­ma­cen­tor and Oto­cen­tor (Ixo­di­dae) in the United States, with Stud­ies in Vari­a­tion. 171. Wash­ing­ton D.C.: Na­tional In­sti­tute of Health. 1938. Ac­cessed Feb­ru­ary 27, 2012 at Printing Printing Screen Screen Basic Kit Screen Screen Basic Kit Screen Basic Kit Printing Printing Basic Kit UCwqfnp.

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