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[Show abstract] 2 100 Makro 8 USM mm 220731 EF Canon TOP qPB6wtABSTRACT: There is now abundant evidence that vaccination with defined protein antigens is able to induce significant immunity to tick infestation. In a limited number of cases, this immunity has been duplicated by vaccination with recombinant antigens, a critical step on the pathway to commercial vaccine production. The existence of two commercial vaccines has allowed a number of field studies showing that the existing products can make an important contribution to an integrated approach to the control of ticks in the field. Under most circumstances however, the use of a tick vaccine as the single, stand alone control technology is likely to require more efficacious vaccines than those currently available. Increases in efficacy are most likely to come through the discovery of additional, effective vaccine antigens. The number of antigens with demonstrated effect is increasing, though only slowly, while the number of potential antigens that remain to be evaluated is increasing more quickly. There is limited, though convincing, evidence that some of these antigens will show effective cross-species protection, though in a poorly understood and unpredictable way. The groundwork has been laid; the potential of the field is still to be effectively exploited.
[Show abstract] 2 100 Makro 8 USM mm 220731 EF Canon TOP qPB6wtShadow DLX 1988 LENS 2000 VLX HEADLIGHT VT600 Honda W CASE 600 BUCKET ABSTRACT: India is predominantly an agricultural country with about 70% of her population dependent on income from agriculture. Although India accounts for a significant share of world's livestock resources, livestock production is greatly affected by ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs). Therefore, India represents a particularly interesting scenario for the study of TTBDs. Herein, we review the problems and opportunities for the integrated control of ticks of ruminants with special emphasis on livestock farming systems in India. Developments discussed in the review in the area of tick vaccines and other tick control measures should have an impact on the future of Indian livestock production.
[Show abstract] 2 100 Makro 8 USM mm 220731 EF Canon TOP qPB6wtABSTRACT: Vaccination of cattle with midgut membrane (GM) antigen derived from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, infected with the adjuvant Quil A, resulted in significant increases in total immunoglobulins, mainly in the IgG1 and IgG2 fractions of the serum. Analysis of the anti-GM antibody levels of vaccinated cattle showed that the levels of IgG, IgG1 and complement-fixing antibodies were significantly correlated to protection against infestation with cattle ticks. Anti-GM antibodies of the IgG2 and IgM isotype were not correlated to protection against infestation with cattle ticks. Anti-GM antibodies fixed complement (C') in the presence of GM, larval membrane antigen and live, midgut cells, but not in the presence of live, larval cells. Anti-GM antibodies were able to fix C' equally well in the presence of GM antigen and live, midgut cells. None of the antigens tested activated the alternate pathway of complement under the conditions tested. Levels of anti-GM IgG1 antibodies were used to develop a regression model for predicting levels of protection against infestation with cattle ticks in vaccinated cattle.