Ticks2009 HOUSING CAP THERMOSTAT HORNET HONDA 600F CB FfrwqBFSv
Ticks are important disease vectors, and Dermacentor ticks can cause fatal tick paralysis in children. Tick paralysis presents as progressive ascending paralysis. As the tick attaches to the scalp, it frequently goes unnoticed, and death occurs in more than 10% of affected children. Nodular lesions are commonly pseudolymphomatous histologically.
Rickettsial illnesses typically present with fever and a headache, and treatment with a tetracycline should never be withheld because of absence of a rash. Any delay in the initiation of antibiotic therapy may prove fatal, and empirical treatment should never be delayed until confirmatory test results are available. Doxycycline is generally recommended in both adults and children.
Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, continue to emerge in much of the world, especially in South America. Recently recognized rickettsial pathogens include Rickettsia parkeri. Most of these agents produce milder syndromes similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Exclusion of animal hosts from recreational areas can be helpful in control of tick-borne illness. Oral agents, including avermectin-laced feed corn, can be used to kill ticks that feed on deer. Removal of leaf debris leads to a reduction in tick numbers through dehydration of adults and ova. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is widely marketed as a topical acaricide to be applied to clothing. It is stable through several wash cycles. Some North African Hyalomma ticks have demonstrated high-level resistance, and permethrin may produce a pheromone-like attachment response in these ticks. Resistance in North American ticks can be esterase based or related to sodium channel gene mutations, and permethrin resistance has been linked to outbreaks of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.
A veterinarian should be consulted concerning control of ticks in pets and livestock. Topical fipronil is commonly used in dogs. Collars can be impregnated with amitraz and pyriproxyfen, and oral agents are also available.
Antibiotic prophylaxis after tick bites is justified only in the case of endemic disease vectors that are heavily engorged. In some cases, the risk-to-benefit ratio may weigh in favor of prophylactic treatment. If the dose is sufficient and the antibiotic is given at the appropriate time, prophylaxis can prevent tick-borne disease. In the case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, single-dose prophylaxis should be avoided as it may only delay the onset of clinical symptoms when it is administered too early in the course of incubation. If the decision is made to administer a prophylactic antibiotic, a full 10-day course of therapy is preferable to single-dose prophylaxis. A controlled trial comparing 10 days of oral doxycycline (with or without intravenous ceftriaxone) with 20 days of oral doxycycline for the treatment of early Lyme disease found a similar response rate in all three treatment groups.